Nature Reviews Genetics
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The life aquatic: advances in marine vertebrate genomics

Nature Reviews Genetics 17, 523 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrg.2016.66 Authors: Joanna L. Kelley, Anthony P. Brown, Nina Overgaard Therkildsen & Andrew D. Foote The ocean is hypothesized to be where life on earth originated, and subsequent evolutionary transitions between marine and terrestrial environments have been key events in the origin of contemporary biodiversity. Here, we review how comparative genomic approaches are an increasingly important aspect of understanding evolutionary (Source: Nature Reviews Genetics)

2016-08-25

Type 2 diabetes: genetic data sharing to advance complex disease research

Nature Reviews Genetics 17, 535 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrg.2016.56 Authors: Jason Flannick & Jose C. Florez As with other complex diseases, unbiased association studies followed by physiological and experimental characterization have for years formed a paradigm for identifying genes or processes of relevance to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Recent large-scale common and rare variant genome-wide association studies (GWAS) suggest that (Source: Nature Reviews Genetics)

2016-08-25

Genetic variation: Nuclear and mitochondrial genome interplay

Nature Reviews Genetics 17, 502 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrg.2016.96 Author: Linda Koch Non-pathogenic variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) substantially affects metabolism and ageing in mice, reports a new study in Nature. This finding could have implications for mitochondrial replacement therapies in humans.Mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRTs) aim to prevent the transmission of mutant mtDNA by creating (Source: Nature Reviews Genetics)

2016-08-25

Evolutionary genetics: Knowing when to stop

Nature Reviews Genetics 17, 501 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrg.2016.100 Author: Darren J. Burgess The genetic code — the rules by which codons are translated into amino acid sequences — is almost universally conserved across all domains of life, although a minority of species are now known to use variant genetic codes. A new study of diverse eukaryotes has (Source: Nature Reviews Genetics)

2016-08-25

Plant genomics: 1001 genomes and epigenomes

Nature Reviews Genetics 17, 503 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrg.2016.99 Author: Linda Koch Two new Arabidopsis thaliana resources from the 1001 Genomes Project promise to substantially facilitate research into how genetic and epigenetic variation can lead to phenotypic diversity on a species-wide level.In the first of two publications in Cell, the 1001 Genomes Consortium report (Source: Nature Reviews Genetics)

2016-08-25

Chromatin: Chromatin variation underLINEd

Nature Reviews Genetics 17, 504 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrg.2016.101 Author: Denise Waldron Variation of chromatin accessibility between individuals has been linked to complex traits and diseases, but the cause of only a minority of this variation is known. Now Du et al. report that transposable elements (TEs) mediate variation in chromatin accessibility in the livers of (Source: Nature Reviews Genetics)

2016-08-25

Open questions in the study of de novo genes: what, how and why

Nature Reviews Genetics 17, 567 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrg.2016.78 Authors: Aoife McLysaght & Laurence D. Hurst The study of de novo protein-coding genes is maturing from the ad hoc reporting of individual cases to the systematic analysis of extensive genomic data from several species. We identify three key challenges for this emerging field: understanding how best to identify de (Source: Nature Reviews Genetics)

2016-08-25

Microbiomes: Symbionts — in it for the long run

Nature Reviews Genetics 17, 502 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrg.2016.102 Author: Bryony Jones Research into the co-evolutionary history of hominids and their gut bacteria shows that multiple symbiotic associations arose in a common ancestor to all African great apes. Over the past 15 million years, these ancient symbionts have speciated in parallel ('co-speciation') with the nuclear and mitochondrial (Source: Nature Reviews Genetics)

2016-08-25

Gene regulation: May the force be with you

Nature Reviews Genetics 17, 505 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrg.2016.103 Author: Paulina Strzyz Cells respond to various mechanical cues, with implications for fundamental cellular processes, such as cell fate determination. However, the mechanisms through which mechanical signals affect cell fate decisions are poorly understood. Le et al. now show that, in epidermal stem cells, mechanical forces induce (Source: Nature Reviews Genetics)

2016-08-25

Transcription factors as readers and effectors of DNA methylation

Nature Reviews Genetics 17, 551 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrg.2016.83 Authors: Heng Zhu, Guohua Wang & Jiang Qian Recent technological advances have made it possible to decode DNA methylomes at single-base-pair resolution under various physiological conditions. Many aberrant or differentially methylated sites have been discovered, but the mechanisms by which changes in DNA methylation lead to observed phenotypes, such as cancer, remain elusive. (Source: Nature Reviews Genetics)

2016-08-25

Genetic screen: A network to guide precision cancer therapy

Nature Reviews Genetics 17, 504 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrg.2016.105 Author: Linda Koch A novel comprehensive map of synthetic-lethal interactions between genes that are mutated in cancer may have great clinical potential. The network resource was obtained using a cross-species approach, revealing interactions that are conserved between yeast and humans, making it potentially a useful source of targets (Source: Nature Reviews Genetics)

2016-08-25

DNA sequencing: Real-time prioritization of sequencing output

Nature Reviews Genetics 17, 503 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrg.2016.107 Author: Darren J. Burgess One limitation of DNA sequencing platforms is that a proportion of sequencing capacity is often 'wasted' on uninformative sequence reads. Loose et al. developed 'Read Until' software for use with the Oxford Nanopore Technologies MinION DNA sequencer. In nanopore sequencing, a DNA strand translocates (Source: Nature Reviews Genetics)

2016-08-25

Genetic interactions: Leveraging context-dependent essentiality

Nature Reviews Genetics 17, 503 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrg.2016.108 Author: Darren J. Burgess To identify genes for which essentiality is dependent on the genetic background, Chen et al. used a library of 80 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, each of which represses an essential gene following doxycycline treatment. After exposing 60 million cells of each strain to doxycycline, (Source: Nature Reviews Genetics)

2016-08-25

Technology: Enabling accurate single-cell genome amplification

Nature Reviews Genetics 17, 503 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrg.2016.109 Author: Darren J. Burgess Multiple displacement amplification (MDA) is a method for whole-genome amplification, but a challenge is to amplify genomes evenly and accurately from single cells. Two new studies report accessible alternatives to current specialized microfluidics instrumentation. Leung et al. used a commercially available piezoelectric dispenser to (Source: Nature Reviews Genetics)

2016-08-25

Towards precision medicine

Nature Reviews Genetics 17, 507 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrg.2016.86 Author: Euan A. Ashley There is great potential for genome sequencing to enhance patient care through improved diagnostic sensitivity and more precise therapeutic targeting. To maximize this potential, genomics strategies that have been developed for genetic discovery — including DNA-sequencing technologies and analysis algorithms — need to be adapted (Source: Nature Reviews Genetics)

2016-08-25

Technique: Genome editing for cell lineage tracing

Nature Reviews Genetics 17, 435 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrg.2016.80 Author: Darren J. Burgess A thorough understanding of organismal developmental biology and how it is disrupted in disease requires an understanding of cellular lineage histories. A new study describes how genome-editing technology can be leveraged as a powerful means to track cell lineages in vivo.Various genetic techniques (Source: Nature Reviews Genetics)

2016-07-27

Gene expression: Dynamic enhancer–promoter interactions for transcriptional bursting

Nature Reviews Genetics 17, 437 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrg.2016.81 Author: Ross Cloney Transcriptional bursts are believed to be a general property of gene expression. They involve multiple consecutive RNA polymerase complexes being released from promoters to rapidly produce several transcripts, followed by a period of little activity. A new study uses live-imaging techniques to monitor transcriptional bursts (Source: Nature Reviews Genetics)

2016-07-27

A comparison of tools for the simulation of genomic next-generation sequencing data

Nature Reviews Genetics 17, 459 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrg.2016.57 Authors: Merly Escalona, Sara Rocha & David Posada Computer simulation of genomic data has become increasingly popular for assessing and validating biological models or for gaining an understanding of specific data sets. Several computational tools for the simulation of next-generation sequencing (NGS) data have been developed in recent years, which could be used (Source: Nature Reviews Genetics)

2016-07-27

Gene expression: Dynamic enhancer –promoter interactions for transcriptional bursting

Nature Reviews Genetics 17, 437 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrg.2016.81 Author: Ross Cloney Transcriptional bursts are believed to be a general property of gene expression. They involve multiple consecutive RNA polymerase complexes being released from promoters to rapidly produce several transcripts, followed by a period of little activity. A new study uses live-imaging techniques to monitor transcriptional bursts (Source: Nature Reviews Genetics)

2016-07-27

Gene therapy: In vivo selection of gene-corrected cells

Nature Reviews Genetics 17, 439 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrg.2016.82 Author: Bryony Jones A new system that enables in vivo selection and amplification of genetically modified hepatocytes has been reported in mice. Gene therapy offers promise for treating a number of genetic disorders, but low efficacy, safety concerns and transgene persistence are common problems. Nygaard et al (Source: Nature Reviews Genetics)

2016-07-27
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