Reviews of Modern Physics
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Sap flow and sugar transport in plants

Author(s): K. H. Jensen, K. Berg-Sørensen, H. Bruus, N. M. Holbrook, J. Liesche, A. Schulz, M. A. Zwieniecki, and T. Bohr<br/><p>Green plants harvest the energy of the Sun in the leaves by converting light energy into chemical energy in the bonds of sugar molecules, using water from the soil and carbon dioxide from the air. This review provides an overview of the vascular anatomy of plants and the physical models that describe the long-distance transport of water and minerals from root to leaf, and, in particular, of sugars from the leaves to the entire body of the plant sustaining growth and communication throughout even the tallest tree.</p><img src="//d22izw7byeupn1.cloudfront.net/journals/RMP/key_images/10.1103/RevModPhys.88.035007.png" width="200" height=\"100\"><br/>[Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 035007] Published Fri Sep 16, 2016

2016-09-23

Publisher’s Note: Google matrix analysis of directed networks [Rev. Mod. Phys. <b>87</b>, 1261 (2015)]

Author(s): Leonardo Ermann, Klaus M. Frahm, and Dima L. Shepelyansky<br/>[Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 039905] Published Tue Sep 20, 2016

2016-09-23

Leptonic and semileptonic decays of B mesons

Author(s): Jochen Dingfelder and Thomas Mannel<br/><p>In the standard model of particle physics, the strong and weak interaction eigenstates of the three generations of quarks differ and are related by the unitary Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. This article reviews measurements of the decays of the mesons containing a bottom quark into final states with leptons. These measurements provide determinations of the matrix elements and other observables, and offer constraints on the standard model as well as pointers to possible new physics.</p><img src="//d22izw7byeupn1.cloudfront.net/journals/RMP/key_images/10.1103/RevModPhys.88.035008.png" width="200" height=\"100\"><br/>[Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 035008] Published Wed Sep 21, 2016

2016-09-23

Control principles of complex systems

Author(s): Yang-Yu Liu and Albert-László Barabási<br/><p>Complex networks range from subcellular biological networks to the Internet. Our ability to control these systems deeply challenges our understanding. Control also may well be a guiding principle in their design. This article reviews the emerging science of the control of complex networks.</p><img src="//d22izw7byeupn1.cloudfront.net/journals/RMP/key_images/10.1103/RevModPhys.88.035006.png" width="200" height=\"100\"><br/>[Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 035006] Published Tue Sep 06, 2016

2016-09-09

Classification of topological quantum matter with symmetries

Author(s): Ching-Kai Chiu, Jeffrey C. Y. Teo, Andreas P. Schnyder, and Shinsei Ryu<br/><p>In recent years an increasing amount of attention has been devoted to quantum materials with topological characteristics that are robust against disorder and other perturbations. In this context it was discovered that topological materials can be classified with respect to their dimension and symmetry properties. This review provides an overview of the classification schemes of both fully gapped and gapless topological materials and gives a pedagogical introduction into the field of topological band theory.</p><img src="//d22izw7byeupn1.cloudfront.net/journals/RMP/key_images/10.1103/RevModPhys.88.035005.png" width="200" height=\"100\"><br/>[Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 035005] Published Wed Aug 31, 2016

2016-09-02

Strangeness in nuclear physics

Author(s): A. Gal, E. V. Hungerford, and D. J. Millener<br/><p>Everyday matter is made of the lightest up and down quarks. The strange quark is the third lightest of all quarks. Strangeness, a property of particles associated with the number of strange quarks, preceded the theory and discovery of the quark by about two decades. Recent experimental and theoretical developments in the field of strangeness in nuclei are reviewed. Topics include the production of strange particles, properties of hypernuclei, and strange dense matter.</p><img src="//d22izw7byeupn1.cloudfront.net/journals/RMP/key_images/10.1103/RevModPhys.88.035004.png" width="200" height=\"100\"><br/>[Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 035004] Published Fri Aug 26, 2016

2016-08-30

Erratum: Ultrafast optical manipulation of magnetic order [Rev. Mod. Phys. <b>82</b>, 2731 (2010)]

Author(s): Andrei Kirilyuk, Alexey V. Kimel, and Theo Rasing<br/>[Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 039904] Published Thu Aug 11, 2016

2016-08-16

Publisher’s Note: Metallic quantum ferromagnets [Rev. Mod. Phys. <b>88</b>, 25006 (2016)]

Author(s): M. Brando, D. Belitz, F. M. Grosche, and T. R. Kirkpatrick<br/>[Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 039901] Published Mon Jul 11, 2016

2016-07-28

Fermion path integrals and topological phases

Author(s): Edward Witten<br/><p>Symmetry-protected phases of matter have been at the forefront of condensed matter physics in recent years. Bosonic symmetry-protected phases have been interpreted in terms of anomalies and group cohomology. The present article aims to develop an analogous description of fermionic symmetry-protected phases, such as the topological insulators that have been seen experimentally in 2 or 3 space dimensions. The relevant mathematical concepts include the Atiyah-Singer index theorem and the Atiyah-Patodi-Singer eta invariant.</p><img src="//d22izw7byeupn1.cloudfront.net/journals/RMP/key_images/10.1103/RevModPhys.88.035001.png" width="200" height=\"100\"><br/>[Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 035001] Published Wed Jul 13, 2016

2016-07-28

Erratum: Modeling semiflexible polymer networks [Rev. Mod. Phys. <b>86</b>, 995 (2014)]

Author(s): C. P. Broedersz and F. C. MacKintosh<br/>[Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 039903] Published Fri Jul 15, 2016

2016-07-28

Erratum: Hidden variables and the two theorems of John Bell [Rev. Mod. Phys. <b>65</b>, 803 (1993)]

Author(s): N. David Mermin<br/>[Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 039902] Published Fri Jul 15, 2016

2016-07-28

Nonlinear waves in PT-symmetric systems

Author(s): Vladimir V. Konotop, Jianke Yang, and Dmitry A. Zezyulin<br/><p>The concept of parity-time symmetric systems is rooted in non-Hermitian quantum mechanics where complex potentials obeying this symmetry could exhibit real spectra. The concept has applications in many fields of physics, e.g., in optics, metamaterials, acoustics, Bose-Einstein condensation, electronic circuitry, etc. The inclusion of nonlinearity has led to a number of new phenomena for which no counterparts exist in traditional dissipative systems. Several examples of nonlinear parity-time symmetric systems in different physical disciplines are presented and their implications discussed.</p><img src="//d22izw7byeupn1.cloudfront.net/journals/RMP/key_images/10.1103/RevModPhys.88.035002.png" width="200" height=\"100\"><br/>[Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 035002] Published Mon Jul 18, 2016

2016-07-28

Statistical mechanics of ecological systems: Neutral theory and beyond

Author(s): Sandro Azaele, Samir Suweis, Jacopo Grilli, Igor Volkov, Jayanth R. Banavar, and Amos Maritan<br/><p>It is of societal importance to advance the understanding of emerging patterns of biodiversity from biological and ecological systems. The neutral theory offers a statistical-mechanical framework that relates key biological properties at the individual scale with macroecological properties at the community scale. This article surveys the quantitative aspects of neutral theory and its extensions for physicists who are interested in what important problems remain unresolved for studying ecological systems.</p><img src="//d22izw7byeupn1.cloudfront.net/journals/RMP/key_images/10.1103/RevModPhys.88.035003.png" width="200" height=\"100\"><br/>[Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 035003] Published Tue Jul 26, 2016

2016-07-28

Nobel Lecture: The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory: Observation of flavor change for solar neutrinos

Author(s): Arthur B. McDonald<br/><p>The 2015 Nobel Prize for Physics was shared by Takaaki Kajita and Arthur B. McDonald. These papers are the text of the address given in conjunction with the award.</p>[Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 030502] Published Wed Jul 06, 2016

2016-07-07

Nobel Lecture: Discovery of atmospheric neutrino oscillations

Author(s): Takaaki Kajita<br/><p>The 2015 Nobel Prize for Physics was shared by Takaaki Kajita and Arthur B. McDonald. These papers are the text of the address given in conjunction with the award.</p>[Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 030501] Published Wed Jul 06, 2016

2016-07-07

<i>Colloquium</i>: Topological band theory

Author(s): A. Bansil, Hsin Lin, and Tanmoy Das<br/><p>First-principles band theory, properly augmented by topological considerations, has provided a remarkably successful framework for predicting new classes of topological materials. This Colloquium discusses the underpinnings of the topological band theory and its materials applications.</p><img src="//d22izw7byeupn1.cloudfront.net/journals/RMP/key_images/10.1103/RevModPhys.88.021004.png" width="200" height=\"100\"><br/>[Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 021004] Published Wed Jun 29, 2016

2016-06-30

Metallic quantum ferromagnets

Author(s): M. Brando, D. Belitz, F. M. Grosche, and T. R. Kirkpatrick<br/><p>A full understanding of long range ferromagnetic order in metallic systems reflects a variety of phenomena which are best understood in the context of quantum phase transitions (QPTs). This review presents experimental data on ferromagnetic QPTs in metals, confronting results with currently available theory. The coverage of clean materials, materials with varying degrees of disorder, and materials with phase diagrams is exhaustive, revealing a trend where the QPTs of clean systems driven by a control parameter are first order compared to more disordered systems where the QPTs are second order.</p><img src="//d22izw7byeupn1.cloudfront.net/journals/RMP/key_images/10.1103/RevModPhys.88.025006.png" width="200" height=\"100\"><br/>[Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 025006] Published Tue May 31, 2016

2016-06-02

Physical properties of low-dimensional sp^{2} -based carbon nanostructures

Author(s): V. Meunier, A. G. Souza Filho, E. B. Barros, and M. S. Dresselhaus<br/><p>This review focuses on the fundamental physical properties of low-dimensional carbon nanostructures (graphene, graphene nanoribbons, and carbon nanotubes), with an emphasis on understanding and utilizing the unique physical properties that make this class of materials ideal building blocks for future nanoscience and nanotechnology development. In depth discussions of the structural, electronic, vibrational, and transport properties of these carbon nanostructures from both theoretical and experimental standpoints provide a coherent and foundational overview for researchers interested in broader areas of carbon science and related noncarbon systems.</p><img src="//d22izw7byeupn1.cloudfront.net/journals/RMP/key_images/10.1103/RevModPhys.88.025005.png" width="200" height=\"100\"><br/>[Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 025005] Published Tue May 24, 2016

2016-05-25

Scaled plane-wave Born cross sections for atoms and molecules

Author(s): H. Tanaka, M. J. Brunger, L. Campbell, H. Kato, M. Hoshino, and A. R. P. Rau<br/><p>Electron-atom and electron-molecule collisional cross sections are needed in the modeling and understanding of phenomena ranging from planetary atmosphere science to industrial applications of plasmas. This article reviews the Born approximation and phenomenological scaling approaches that provide accurate excitation cross sections over a range of electron impact energies. The methods are illustrated for a variety of atomic and molecular systems.</p><img src="//d22izw7byeupn1.cloudfront.net/journals/RMP/key_images/10.1103/RevModPhys.88.025004.png" width="200" height=\"100\"><br/>[Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 025004] Published Thu May 19, 2016

2016-05-20

<i>Colloquium</i>: Search for a drifting proton-electron mass ratio from H_{2}

Author(s): W. Ubachs, J. Bagdonaite, E. J. Salumbides, M. T. Murphy, and L. Kaper<br/><p>Looking back into 10-12 billion years of cosmic history this Colloquium paper summarizes what is presently known about the proton-to-electron mass ratio and its variation with time. The hydrogen spectra of quasars and how they reveal fundamental information on some of the most important constants in physics and cosmology are reviewed.</p><img src="//d22izw7byeupn1.cloudfront.net/journals/RMP/key_images/10.1103/RevModPhys.88.021003.png" width="200" height=\"100\"><br/>[Rev. Mod. Phys. 88, 021003] Published Wed May 04, 2016

2016-05-18
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