Nature Reviews Cancer
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Pancreatic cancer biology and genetics from an evolutionary perspective

Nature Reviews Cancer 16, 553 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrc.2016.66 Authors: Alvin Makohon-Moore & Christine A. Iacobuzio-Donahue Cancer is an evolutionary disease, containing the hallmarks of an asexually reproducing unicellular organism subject to evolutionary paradigms. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (hereafter referred to as pancreatic cancer) is a particularly robust example of this phenomenon. Genomic features indicate that pancreatic cancer cells are selected for (Source: Nature Reviews Cancer)

2016-08-24

Metastasis: Setting up a new home

Nature Reviews Cancer 16, 550 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrc.2016.86 Author: Anna Dart In response to tumour-derived signals, fibroblastic reticular cells within tumour-draining lymph nodes acquire a unique gene signature which in turn disrupts the composition and localization of lymph node immune cell populations. (Source: Nature Reviews Cancer)

2016-08-24

Resistance: How to resist immunotherapy

Nature Reviews Cancer 16, 550 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrc.2016.88 Author: M. Teresa Villanueva Acquired resistance to programmed cell death 1 blockade in patients with melanoma is associated with defects in the pathways involved in interferon-receptor signalling. (Source: Nature Reviews Cancer)

2016-08-24

Chemotherapy: Putting tumours on a diet

Nature Reviews Cancer 16, 549 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrc.2016.90 Author: Sarah Seton-Rogers Two papers show that specific diets or pharmacological agents that mimic fasting inhibit tumour growth in combination with chemotherapy through effects on the immune system. (Source: Nature Reviews Cancer)

2016-08-24

Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer: new genes in confined pathways

Nature Reviews Cancer 16, 599 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrc.2016.72 Authors: Finn Cilius Nielsen, Thomas van Overeem Hansen & Claus Storgaard Sørensen Genetic abnormalities in the DNA repair genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). However, only approximately 25% of cases of HBOC can be ascribed to BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Recently, exome sequencing has uncovered substantial locus (Source: Nature Reviews Cancer)

2016-08-24

Metastasis: RIP endothelial cells

Nature Reviews Cancer 16, 551 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrc.2016.93 Author: Anna Dart In order to metastasize, circulating tumour cells must exit the bloodstream by passing through the endothelial barrier. This process of extravasation is poorly understood. Strilic et al. now provide evidence that tumour cells can induce necroptosis of endothelial cells to drive transendothelial migration and (Source: Nature Reviews Cancer)

2016-08-24

Leukaemia: Common driver gets new oncogenic mechanism

Nature Reviews Cancer 16, 551 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrc.2016.94 Author: Anna Dart Mutations in the genes isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 2 (TET2) are common drivers in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), which has led to the assumption that mutant IDH1 might drive alterations in DNA methylation (Source: Nature Reviews Cancer)

2016-08-24

Oncogenes: piRNA flies in

Nature Reviews Cancer 16, 551 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrc.2016.95 Author: Anna Dart It is recognized that in a number of different soma-derived human cancers, expression of genes typically restricted to germ cells can become reactivated, and amongst these are components of the PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway. This phenomenon of germline gene re-expression has also been shown to (Source: Nature Reviews Cancer)

2016-08-24

Engineered T cells: the promise and challenges of cancer immunotherapy

Nature Reviews Cancer 16, 566 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrc.2016.97 Authors: Andrew D. Fesnak, Carl H. June & Bruce L. Levine The immune system evolved to distinguish non-self from self to protect the organism. As cancer is derived from our own cells, immune responses to dysregulated cell growth present a unique challenge. This is compounded by mechanisms of immune evasion and immunosuppression that develop in the (Source: Nature Reviews Cancer)

2016-08-24

The biology and function of fibroblasts in cancer

Nature Reviews Cancer 16, 582 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrc.2016.73 Author: Raghu Kalluri Among all cells, fibroblasts could be considered the cockroaches of the human body. They survive severe stress that is usually lethal to all other cells, and they are the only normal cell type that can be live-cultured from post-mortem and decaying tissue. Their resilient adaptation (Source: Nature Reviews Cancer)

2016-08-24

New prospects for targeting telomerase beyond the telomere

Nature Reviews Cancer 16, 508 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrc.2016.55 Authors: Greg M. Arndt & Karen L. MacKenzie Telomerase activity is responsible for the maintenance of chromosome end structures (telomeres) and cancer cell immortality in most human malignancies, making telomerase an attractive therapeutic target. The rationale for targeting components of the telomerase holoenzyme has been strengthened by accumulating evidence indicating that these molecules (Source: Nature Reviews Cancer)

2016-07-27

The role of enhancers in cancer

Nature Reviews Cancer 16, 483 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrc.2016.62 Authors: Inderpreet Sur & Jussi Taipale Enhancer elements function as the logic gates of the genetic regulatory circuitry. One of their most important functions is the integration of extracellular signals with intracellular cell fate information to generate cell type-specific transcriptional responses. Mutations occurring in cancer often misregulate enhancers that normally control (Source: Nature Reviews Cancer)

2016-07-27

A fate worse than death: apoptosis as an oncogenic process

Nature Reviews Cancer 16, 539 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrc.2016.58 Authors: Gabriel Ichim & Stephen W. G. Tait Apoptotic cell death is widely considered a positive process that both prevents and treats cancer. Although undoubtedly having a beneficial role, paradoxically, apoptosis can also cause unwanted effects that may even promote cancer. In this Opinion article we highlight some of the ways by which (Source: Nature Reviews Cancer)

2016-07-27

Wildlife cancer: Cancer mussels in

Nature Reviews Cancer 16, 480 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrc.2016.74 Author: Anna Dart The identification of multiple independent cancer lineages in multiple bivalve species makes transmissible cancers a common event, not exclusively restricted to the species of origin. (Source: Nature Reviews Cancer)

2016-07-27

Biomarker development in the precision medicine era: lung cancer as a case study

Nature Reviews Cancer 16, 525 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrc.2016.56 Authors: Ashley J. Vargas & Curtis C. Harris Precision medicine relies on validated biomarkers with which to better classify patients by their probable disease risk, prognosis and/or response to treatment. Although affordable 'omics'-based technology has enabled faster identification of putative biomarkers, the validation of biomarkers is still stymied by low statistical power and (Source: Nature Reviews Cancer)

2016-07-27

Genetics: Acute myeloid leukaemia: driving the driver

Nature Reviews Cancer 16, 479 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrc.2016.75 Author: M. Teresa Villanueva Papaemmanuil et al. have described new mutations that drive acute myeloid leukaemia and classify the disease in distinct subgroups associated with different diagnostic features and clinical outcomes (Source: Nature Reviews Cancer)

2016-07-27

Tumour suppressors: The dark side of p21

Nature Reviews Cancer 16, 481 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrc.2016.78 Author: Eytan Zlotorynski Whereas activation of p21 by p53 causes G1 cell cycle arrest, p53-independent expression of p21 can cause deregulation of DNA replication and genomic instability. (Source: Nature Reviews Cancer)

2016-07-27

Aurora-A — A guardian of poles

Aurora-A — A guardian of poles Nature Reviews Cancer 5, 42 (2005). doi:10.1038/nrc1526 Authors: Tomotoshi Marumoto, Dongwei Zhang & Hideyuki Saya (Source: Nature Reviews Cancer)

2016-07-27

Pancreatic cancer: Dodging immunosuppression

Nature Reviews Cancer 16, 480 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrc.2016.80 Author: Sarah Seton-Rogers Jiang et al. show that inhibition of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) reduces immunosuppression and fibrosis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and can improve the efficacy of both chemotherapy and immunotherapy in PDAC mouse models. (Source: Nature Reviews Cancer)

2016-07-27

The genetics and mechanisms of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

Nature Reviews Cancer 16, 494 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrc.2016.63 Authors: Laura Belver & Adolfo Ferrando T cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive haematological malignancy derived from early T cell progenitors. In recent years genomic and transcriptomic studies have uncovered major oncogenic and tumour suppressor pathways involved in T-ALL transformation and identified distinct biological groups associated with prognosis. An (Source: Nature Reviews Cancer)

2016-07-27
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