Nature Reviews Immunology
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A guide to immunometabolism for immunologists

Nature Reviews Immunology 16, 553 (2016). doi:10.1038/nri.2016.70 Authors: Luke A. J. O'Neill, Rigel J. Kishton & Jeff Rathmell In recent years a substantial number of findings have been made in the area of immunometabolism, by which we mean the changes in intracellular metabolic pathways in immune cells that alter their function. Here, we provide a brief refresher course on six of the major (Source: Nature Reviews Immunology)

2016-08-30

Cutaneous leishmaniasis: immune responses in protection and pathogenesis

Nature Reviews Immunology 16, 581 (2016). doi:10.1038/nri.2016.72 Authors: Phillip Scott & Fernanda O. Novais Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a major public health problem and causes a range of diseases from self-healing infections to chronic disfiguring disease. Currently, there is no vaccine for leishmaniasis, and drug therapy is often ineffective. Since the discovery of CD4+ T helper 1 (T (Source: Nature Reviews Immunology)

2016-08-30

Discriminating self from non-self in nucleic acid sensing

Nature Reviews Immunology 16, 566 (2016). doi:10.1038/nri.2016.78 Authors: Martin Schlee & Gunther Hartmann Innate immunity against pathogens relies on an array of immune receptors to detect molecular patterns that are characteristic of the pathogens, including receptors that are specialized in the detection of foreign nucleic acids. In vertebrates, nucleic acid sensing is the dominant antiviral defence pathway. Stimulation (Source: Nature Reviews Immunology)

2016-08-30

Autoimmunity: Infection stimulates self-antigen presentation

Nature Reviews Immunology 16, 534 (2016). doi:10.1038/nri.2016.91 Author: Elisabeth Kugelberg Apoptosis of infected cells induces both pathogen-specific and self-reactive T helper 17 cells. (Source: Nature Reviews Immunology)

2016-08-30

Regulation of pattern recognition receptor signalling in plants

Nature Reviews Immunology 16, 537 (2016). doi:10.1038/nri.2016.77 Authors: Daniel Couto & Cyril Zipfel Recognition of pathogen-derived molecules by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) is a common feature of both animal and plant innate immune systems. In plants, PRR signalling is initiated at the cell surface by kinase complexes, resulting in the activation of immune responses that ward off microorganisms. (Source: Nature Reviews Immunology)

2016-08-30

HIV: A recipe for inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies

Nature Reviews Immunology 16, 533 (2016). doi:10.1038/nri.2016.92 Author: Kirsty Minton An immune profile associated with the production of broadly neutralizing antibodies is identified in HIV-1-infected individuals. (Source: Nature Reviews Immunology)

2016-08-30

Autoimmunity: Autoantibodies with a silver lining?

Nature Reviews Immunology 16, 536 (2016). doi:10.1038/nri.2016.96 Author: Yvonne Bordon Autoantibodies specific for type I IFNs can protect against type 1 diabetes. (Source: Nature Reviews Immunology)

2016-08-30

T Cell responses: Defective mitochondria disrupt CD8+ T cells

Nature Reviews Immunology 16, 534 (2016). doi:10.1038/nri.2016.98 Author: Olive Leavy Defective mitochondrial metabolism results in dysfunction CD8+ T cells in chronic viral infections and tumours. (Source: Nature Reviews Immunology)

2016-08-30

Asthma and allergy: Old McDonald had a farm (but no asthma)!

Nature Reviews Immunology 16, 535 (2016). doi:10.1038/nri.2016.97 Author: Olive Leavy Traditional farming practices in Amish communities help shape the innate immune response and protect against asthma. (Source: Nature Reviews Immunology)

2016-08-30

The unfolded protein response in immunity and inflammation

Nature Reviews Immunology 16, 469 (2016). doi:10.1038/nri.2016.62 Authors: Joep Grootjans, Arthur Kaser, Randal J. Kaufman & Richard S. Blumberg The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a highly conserved pathway that allows the cell to manage endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress that is imposed by the secretory demands associated with environmental forces. In this role, the UPR has increasingly been shown to have crucial functions in (Source: Nature Reviews Immunology)

2016-07-28

Innate sensing of oxidation-specific epitopes in health and disease

Nature Reviews Immunology 16, 485 (2016). doi:10.1038/nri.2016.63 Authors: Christoph J. Binder, Nikolina Papac-Milicevic & Joseph L. Witztum Ageing, infections and inflammation result in oxidative stress that can irreversibly damage cellular structures. The oxidative damage of lipids in membranes or lipoproteins is one of these deleterious consequences that not only alters lipid function but also leads to the formation of neo-self epitopes — (Source: Nature Reviews Immunology)

2016-07-28

Macrophages: Memories of the dead give strength

Nature Reviews Immunology 16, 464 (2016). doi:10.1038/nri.2016.81 Author: Olive Leavy The uptake of apoptotic corpses generates a molecular memory in macrophages that boosts the innate immune response. (Source: Nature Reviews Immunology)

2016-07-28

Combinatorial antibody libraries: new advances, new immunological insights

Nature Reviews Immunology 16, 498 (2016). doi:10.1038/nri.2016.67 Author: Richard A. Lerner Immunochemists have become quite proficient in engineering existing antibody molecules to control their pharmacological properties. However, in terms of generating new antibodies, the combinatorial antibody library has become a central feature of modern immunochemistry. These libraries are essentially an immune system in a test tube (Source: Nature Reviews Immunology)

2016-07-28

Immune responses and immunopathology in acute and chronic viral hepatitis

Nature Reviews Immunology 16, 509 (2016). doi:10.1038/nri.2016.69 Authors: Eui-Cheol Shin, Pil Soo Sung & Su-Hyung Park Hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are responsible for most cases of viral hepatitis. Infection by each type of virus results in a different typical natural disease course and clinical outcome that are determined by virological and immunological (Source: Nature Reviews Immunology)

2016-07-28

B cell-T cell interaction: antigen bridge to antigen presentation

Nature Reviews Immunology 16, 467 (2016). doi:10.1038/nri.2016.82 Author: Gail A. Bishop Gail Bishop describes a 1985 study by Antonio Lanzavecchia that changed our understanding of B cell–T cell interactions. (Source: Nature Reviews Immunology)

2016-07-28

Immunity by equilibrium

Nature Reviews Immunology 16, 524 (2016). doi:10.1038/nri.2016.75 Author: Gérard Eberl The classical model of immunity posits that the immune system reacts to pathogens and injury and restores homeostasis. Indeed, a century of research has uncovered the means and mechanisms by which the immune system recognizes danger and regulates its own activity. However, this classical model (Source: Nature Reviews Immunology)

2016-07-28

Immunometabolism: Innate sensing role for metabolic enzyme

Nature Reviews Immunology 16, 463 (2016). doi:10.1038/nri.2016.84 Author: Yvonne Bordon The glycolytic enzyme hexokinase can act as an innate sensor of bacterial sugars and trigger inflammasome activation. (Source: Nature Reviews Immunology)

2016-07-28

Immunometabolism: Mitochondria adapt to bacteria

Nature Reviews Immunology 16, 464 (2016). doi:10.1038/nri.2016.83 Author: Elisabeth Kugelberg Macrophages adjust their mitochondrial respiratory functions in response to viable bacteria. (Source: Nature Reviews Immunology)

2016-07-28

Infectious diseases: Two-pronged attack on HIV

Nature Reviews Immunology 16, 465 (2016). doi:10.1038/nri.2016.87 Author: Katie Kingwell Two studies identify bispecific antibodies that show broad and potent neutralization of HIV in mouse models. (Source: Nature Reviews Immunology)

2016-07-28

Neuroimmunology: Social support from the immune system

Nature Reviews Immunology 16, 466 (2016). doi:10.1038/nri.2016.85 Author: Yvonne Bordon Interferon-γ acts on inhibitory neurons to regulate social behaviour in mice (Source: Nature Reviews Immunology)

2016-07-28
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